Extraction and Quantitation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Redox Cofactors.

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AIMS: Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms.

RESULTS: We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues: a cold aqueous buffer commonly used in enzyme assays with and without detergent, hot aqueous buffer, and cold organic mixtures (80% methanol, buffered 75% acetonitrile, and acidic 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with either 0.02 M or 0.1 M formic acid). Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To monitor the metabolite interconversion, cells were grown in (13)C6-glucose medium, and unlabeled standards were spiked into the extraction solvents. Interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms was substantial except for the enzyme assay buffer with detergent, 80% methanol and 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water, with the 0.1 M formic acid mix giving the least interconversion and best recoveries. Absolute NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH concentrations in cells and mouse tissues were measured with this approach.

INNOVATION: We found that the interconversion between the reduced and oxidized forms during extraction is a major barrier to accurately measuring NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios. Such interconversion can be monitored by isotope labeling cells and spiking NAD(P)(H) standards.

CONCLUSION: Extraction with 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with 0.1 M formic acid decreases interconversion and, therefore, is suitable for measurement of redox cofactor ratios using LC-MS. This solvent is also useful for general metabolomics. Samples should be neutralized immediately after extraction to avoid acid-catalyzed degradation. When LC-MS is not available and enzyme assays are accordingly used, inclusion of detergent in the aqueous extraction buffer reduces interconversion. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

Antioxid Redox Signal
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Antioxid. Redox Signal.