|Title||Extraction and Quantitation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Redox Cofactors.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Lu, W, Wang, L, Chen, L, Hui, S, Rabinowitz, JD|
|Journal||Antioxid Redox Signal|
|Date Published||2017 Jul 19|
AIMS: Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms.
RESULTS: We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues: a cold aqueous buffer commonly used in enzyme assays with and without detergent, hot aqueous buffer, and cold organic mixtures (80% methanol, buffered 75% acetonitrile, and acidic 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with either 0.02 M or 0.1 M formic acid). Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To monitor the metabolite interconversion, cells were grown in (13)C6-glucose medium, and unlabeled standards were spiked into the extraction solvents. Interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms was substantial except for the enzyme assay buffer with detergent, 80% methanol and 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water, with the 0.1 M formic acid mix giving the least interconversion and best recoveries. Absolute NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH concentrations in cells and mouse tissues were measured with this approach.
INNOVATION: We found that the interconversion between the reduced and oxidized forms during extraction is a major barrier to accurately measuring NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios. Such interconversion can be monitored by isotope labeling cells and spiking NAD(P)(H) standards.
CONCLUSION: Extraction with 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with 0.1 M formic acid decreases interconversion and, therefore, is suitable for measurement of redox cofactor ratios using LC-MS. This solvent is also useful for general metabolomics. Samples should be neutralized immediately after extraction to avoid acid-catalyzed degradation. When LC-MS is not available and enzyme assays are accordingly used, inclusion of detergent in the aqueous extraction buffer reduces interconversion. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
|Alternate Journal||Antioxid. Redox Signal.|